Paul Pitoum studied painting at a school in his hometown and exhibited his work for the first time in Rostov, a city near Taganrog. As an actor, he took an interest in theater. In 1921, as he decided to travel around Europe with a troupe, the latter wound up and he turned towards theater set designing. That same year, he became a set designer for La Scala in Milan. In 1922, he was in Berlin and continued to work for a Russian troupe. Paul Pitoum then went on a series of trips to Belgium, Algeria, and France. He settled in Paris in 1923. In 1936, he worked as a set designer for the Francois 1er film studios. He produced posters for Russian cinema, and worked on the Soviet pavilion project for the International Exhibition in 1937. In 1939, Paul Pitoum was arrested and interned in a political prison camp. He died of a stomach ulcer on July 5, 1940.